• Ask following questinos before designing

  1. Purpose:

  • Education (Minikube)

  • Development & Testing (Multi node)

  • Hosting production Apps

  1. Cloud on OnPrem

  2. Workloads

  • How many?

  • What kind?

    • Web

    • Big data/Analytics

  • Application Resource Requirements

    • CPU intensive

    • Memory intensive

  • Traffic

    • Heavy Traffic

    • Burst Traffic

Hosting Production Application

  • High availability multi node cluster with multiple master node.

  • Kubeadm or GCP or Kops oR AWS

  • Upto 5000 nodes

  • Upto 150000 pods in the cluster

  • Upto 300000 total containers

Cloud or OnPrem

  • Use Kubeadm or on-pre

  • GKE for GCP

  • Kops for AWS

  • Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) for Azure


  • High performance SSD Backed storage

  • Multiple concurrent connections network based storage

  • Persistent shared volumes for shared access accros multple pods

  • Lable nodes with specific disk type

  • Use node selectors to assign apps to node with specific disk size


  • Virtual or Physical Machines

  • Minimum of 4 node cluster

  • Master vs worker nodes

  • Linux x86_64 architecture

  • Master nodes can host workloads

Configure HA


--leader-elect true
--leader-elect-lease-duration 15s
--leader-elect-renew-deadline 10s
--leader-elect-retry-period 2s


  • Stacked Topology

    • Resides inside master node

    • Easier to setup

    • Easier to manage

    • Fewer serves

    • Risk during failures

  • External Topology

    • Resides outside master node

    • Less Risky

    • Harder to setup

    • More servers

  • In distributed architecture, only one etcd node is responsible to write data

  • While you can read the data from any etcd instance

  • Leader election in ETCD is done using RAFT protocol (Random Timers used)

  • For master nodes to bear fault tolerance it is always preferred odd number of managers available (Over 3)

  • export ETCDCTL_API=3
  • etcdctl put name john
  • etcdctl get name
  • etcdctl get / --prefix --keys-only

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